Guide Space-Age Cowboys - Aerospace in the Psychedelic Sixties

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I finished my degree at Texas Tech, and went on to graduate school at Berkeley, where I developed a novel way to clean plutonium from the environment. My work made quite a media splash—it was featured on the front page of the San Francisco Chronicle.


I was invited come to Los Alamos as a full-blown staff member. I accepted, and began research into the weapons-related issues around plutonium. My first breakthrough was on how plutonium corrodes—basically how it rusts. Tons of plutonium around the country was left literally overnight in temporary containers. What I had discovered was that this plutonium would degrade in a very special way, potentially bursting its containers. Fairly quickly, the Defense Board issued a formal recommendation to repackage all of the plutonium in the country to avoid these problems.

I was a science celebrity! I was asked to train inspectors and help write a new standard for storage of plutonium. And all of this grew out of work to understand how plutonium degraded in weapons. This was timely because the government was debating whether it needed a replacement for Rocky Flats. If pits lasted long enough, then a big replacement factory wouldn't be needed. Again, science was at the forefront of a critical national issue, and my research was back in the newspapers!

Well, we did figure out that pits age gracefully, and the government decided it did not need to build an expensive new facility. This was a great example of how science could inform critical national policy decisions. More importantly, it showed a way that science could help reduce the number of nuclear weapons. I was excited! I began to study nuclear deterrence and policy. Could science substitute for weapons? I was asked to help lead the famous weapons design division at Los Alamos.

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I studied issues around weapons design and physics. Humans now control planet Earth. Year by year, by emitting climate-warming greenhouse gases into the atmosphere we increase the temperature of the air, decrease the amount of snow in the mountains, increase the acidity of the oceans, and even strengthen devastating hurricane impacts.

These impacts are now being felt by individuals, communities, states, and countries all over the world, and the changes will only accelerate as human emissions of greenhouse gases continue. Perhaps the most profound long-term impact of human-driven climate change will be increased sea level resulting from melting of the massive Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets. These giant glaciers together have the ability raise global sea level by an astounding feet if they melted completely, flooding vast areas of land that is home to hundreds of millions of people. How much ice sheet melt have we already committed to?

How much more can we emit before we commit to total ice sheet loss? Will ice sheet melting affect ocean circulation, weather patterns, and even volcanic eruptions? These urgent and unanswered questions are now being addressed by the climate science community, as we race to understand the impacts of our actions on planet Earth. It is these complex computer models in particular that I have worked with in my journey to understand ice sheet behavior.

In fact, in this Cafe I will actually enlist you to explore active research data from a brand new research experiment which aims to understand Antarctic ice sheet changes. How does our planet work? This is a fantastic question and one that has increasingly piqued my interest through high school, university, and now professional research at Los Alamos National Laboratory. I grew up outside a small town in the forests of central British Columbia Canada. My parents were high school teachers, and when I was in Grade 8 they pulled me and my sister from school and we spent a year living out of backpacks on a world-circling trip.

Of all the memories, some of the most vivid were of dramatic natural features: Mt. Back in Canada, between classes I enjoyed scrambling, skiing, hiking, biking and climbing with friends in the interior BC mountains, where we gained a deep respect for the natural world through outdoor adventures. After finishing high school, I decided to leave my hometown to enter the Earth and Ocean Sciences program at the University of Victoria, which combined geology and geophysics with math, chemistry, physics, atmospheric sciences, oceanography, and biology to understand Earth system behaviour in a very complete way.

I took fascinating Earth science courses taught by Earth system researchers. I was hooked on Earth science! My enthusiasm for asking questions showed, and the leader of a high-powered climate modelling laboratory at the university invited me to start graduate studies with his group investigating the response of sub-sea methane deposits to human-forced climate change. So fun! I then moved to developing computer codes that connected models of ice sheet dynamics to larger models of the climate system to understand how human climate forcing may cause sea level rise by melting the vast Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets.

My LANL job lets me work on a topic that is challenging and fun with incredible colleagues, has massive implications for global society, and has also become deeply politicized. Contributing to climate progress through understanding ice sheet behaviour is greatly rewarding, even when my brain gets overwhelmed with the complexity and implications of the science. I feel fortunate that my enthusiastic geek-out on Earth science in high school and university - which was originally based on nothing more than enjoying playing outdoors with my friends - has led to such a challenging and rewarding career in climate research.

Have you ever thought about where your water comes from before it comes out of your kitchen faucet or tap? Those molecules of water have traveled around Earth as rain drops, flowed through rivers, sat deep beneath the ground, moved through the oceans, helped keep plants alive, and maybe even been drank by other animals before it ended up if your glass! Water molecules have moved around Earth like this for millions of years in what is called the hydrologic cycle. My research looks at the movement of water across the surface of the Earth, mostly through rivers and streams.

It is easy for us to see how water moves across the Earth in rivers, which are very important for us and the environment. Rivers are the arteries of Earth, delivering vital nutrients to the organs of the landscape and bringing life to even the most remote places of society. However, with the help of society, the Earth has developed a very unhealthy diet, which harms the natural processes of rivers and their ability to deliver water, nutrients, and sediment.

Historically, many societies gathered around rivers and developed cities and villages. With the goal to develop the land, humans have greatly changed the shape and behavior of rivers. These changes are a result of mining, timber harvest, digging out the bottom of rivers so large boats can move up them, building cities and roads around them, and changing the amount of water that flows in rivers.

To collect freshwater for drinking, growing food, and making every-day products, we have left only a small amount of water that naturally flows through some rivers. This is true especially in the western United States, like New Mexico, where populations in cities are growing and demand for water pulls a lot of water out of rivers. This changes the shape of rivers and the ability for rivers to support wildlife and the environment. The impact of societies on natural river systems is made worse by a changing climate.

As temperatures increase, the demand for water becomes higher. My research and collaborative efforts with other scientists seek to explore the natural processes of rivers and how land use and climate change influence these processes. I do this by comparing how rivers mode water and sediment over time, how the shape of rivers change sediment and water movement, and how humans change the shape of rivers.

One of the main reasons we take water from rivers is for drinking water in cities and growing food, we do this by build dams to store that water in reservoirs. Dams and reservoirs store water that we can use throughout the year and can create electricity for use where there is a hydropower dam. Although reservoirs save water for when we need it and provide fun activities for families to go swimming and boating, it changes our rivers and hurts the river ecosystem plants and animals living in and around the river.

Dams can hurt the ecosystem by allowing less water to flow in rivers and by trapping sediment that normally moves down the river with water. This is important also for the coast and beaches along the ocean. When we trap sediment behind dams, beaches and important habitat for wildlife can disappear. Some fish grow up as they swim down the river, live their life in the ocean, and then swim back up the river returning to their home town to have offspring where they were born.

This is one thing that can be done to lessen the impact of dams, but finding ways to decrease the number of dams we need is probably the most important. We can help by conserving water and trying to find ways to use less water. I do this by turning off the shower while I am washing and then turning it back on again to rinse. Using less electricity can actually decrease the amount of water needed when we get our power from hydroelectric plants.

As a society, we can 1 continue to develop solar and wind power so we do not have to build more dams, 2 make more efficient buildings so we do not need to use as much electricity, 3 use less electricity at home, 4 build dams with fish ladders and devises that help ecosystems live with dams, 5 increase the efficiency of our water use, especially in agriculture and growing food, 6 xeriscaping our yards so we do not have to use so much water on grassy lawns this is the largest use of water in the US aside from agriculture , 7 eat less meat because it takes a lot of water to grow the food animals eat.

Life is a river, but whether we float, swim, or sink, is up to each of us. If you have ever swum, canoed, or floated on a raft in a river, you may know what I mean. Sometimes the current can take us to dangerous places, like into a large rock or tree. We might get caught up in an eddy where we keep circling back around over and over. On a rafting trip while I was doing research along a river once, I flipped in a kayak and was pulled to the bottom of river where the current was pushing me down.

I cut my hands but was able to push myself away from the rocks below and emerge, much to the relief of my friends and colleagues. To avoid, mishaps like that, I like to keep my eyes forward, map out several possible routes, paddle hard when I need to, and see where the current takes me. This provides me with the flexibility to adapt to new situations without having my mind set or stuck on one possible outcome. The path or stream that got me where I am today is evidence of this. I grew up in Ohio near Lake Erie and delivered furniture while I was in high school.

I took mostly art classes, because it nurtured my creativity. I spent some summers hiking and camping in states around the country with my father and I developed an appreciation for nature. I moved out when I graduated high school and started working numerous jobs, but eventually starting taking one class at a time at a local community college. My first photography course was very inspiring because I could combine my love for nature and creativity.

I enrolled in a wide variety of classes including many other photography courses, art appreciation, humanities, music theory and appreciation, and science classes. I took philosophy, psychology, and sociology courses and thought I wanted to be a psychologist, until I ended up with a lousy professor who changed my mind. I focused on photography and started photographing weddings. The courses I took began to shape my interests toward natural sciences while I continued photography. I was largely influenced by the environmental aspect of this paper as well as what I learned from my sociology professor from Africa about how much water Americans waste.

The only course I took related to Earth sciences was a Physical Sciences course. I spent much of the time taking photographs and was inspired by the landscape photographer, Ansel Adams. His photographs show parts of the country people rarely saw, and helped those lands become designated as National Parks. My photographs were primarily black and white landscape photography including depictions of nature, environmental issues, rocks, and water. I showed my photographs in numerous galleries and sold some for hundreds of dollars. I was able to pull from the things I learned hiking and camping with my father so that geology seemed to come naturally to me.

I decided to save up money and move to the western US where the geology was bare and exposed, like you see here in New Mexico. I enrolled in a university in Idaho and declared both Fine Art Photography and Geosciences a double major. I had an amazing professor that inspired me in a climate class where we learned about past climates of the Earth and the impact of climate change. She saw my potential and enthusiasm for science and offered me a job as a research assistant and introduced me to other professors. I ended up working in a laboratory and outside doing research in Idaho and Washington state with soils, water, geophysics, hydrogeology, and geographic information systems.

One of these jobs included white water rafting on a world-class river, Middle Fork of the Salmon River, to do research on forest fires and sediment. Yes, one of those rafting trips was the time I thought I was going to drown when my kayak flipped. A senior thesis was formed from my work on one of those projects and I got an amazing scholarship through the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

I decided to study how water flowing in rivers changes the surface of the Earth at Colorado State University for my Masters of Science degree in Geosciences doing research along desert streams. By saying yes to opportunities and applying myself, I am now able to meet new people, share what I learn, ask and answer exciting questions, try to make a difference in the world, help people see the importance of water resources, and travel to different places around the world. Have you ever heard of an old scientist named Bernoulli?

Our discussion will dive into the fundamental principles of fluids and fluid motion, looking at things like pressure differences and turbulence. Hands on demos will help us explore some of these fundamental premises as we build toward an understanding of the forces at play in a standard aerodynamic environment. Ultimately, we will look at why this matters to laser research! I was always a nerd growing up. I enjoyed math and science, loved building things especially with Legos , and was fascinated to learn how things worked.

I soon was thrust into high school and college started looming on the horizon. I had decided I wanted to be an aerospace engineer and thus limited my search to schools that offered that degree. I did my research and visited both schools. I decided to choose USAFA for the leadership opportunities and extraordinary experiences only possible there.

As a cadet I decided to pursue a mechanical engineering degree, rather than aeronautical engineering as "Mech" was described as more broad and offered a wider range of opportunities after college. I have now been on the job for over a year and am working with the Aero-Effects Branch. We do research to study the effects of turbulence and other aero disturbances on propagating laser beams to support the development of future laser weapons.

In rural areas of western Kenya, the distance from a health care facility determines the healthcare-seeking behavior of the residents. Alternative places for healthcare in rural areas include traditional healers, community health workers, chemists or unlicensed drug sellers, and village shops.

Against this background, the distance, frequency, pattern, and diseases burdening residents in the rural communities are crucial for determining health interventions. The purpose of my research is to explore the differential healthcare seeking behavior at a peripheral health facility in Western Kenya.

Given the location of the health facility, the study seeks to define who gets deterred from seeking primary healthcare services because of distance. The main questions are: Within the distance to the facility, what is the variation in the healthcare-seeking behavior? Does place of residence matter in relation to the health facility? Who gets deterred by distance more, men or women? For the data collection and analysis part of this research, health utilization data was obtained from the daily and monthly records of diagnosis for adults and children made at the outpatient Shaviringa Health Center in Western Kenya for A typology of users will be constructed based on age, distance, and diagnosis.

Characteristics of the villages from which the patients reside will also be identified. Then charts made in Excel that show a representation of the ages, sex, and diagnoses. The findings of this research will extend knowledge about rural health interventions and how they fit in the global efforts of sustaining primary healthcare access. The statistical analysis will enable us to make decisions about healthcare seeking behavior and make recommendations for policy or future research.

I grew up in a rural community in western Kenya. We improvised most of what we played with and soccer was our favorite activity. There was separation of chores for boys and girls. Herding cattle was a common activity for boys, while girls ferried water from the river and collected firewood for cooking meals. We walked about four miles to school every day because there were no school buses. Most high schools have a boarding system, so we stayed in school for three months before going home for a four-week vacation. Hospitals are few and distant, so we had to walk far when we fell sick.

My father taught math and sciences in elementary school, and he always marveled at scientific inventions. My elder brother was pursuing a physics course in college, and he used to fascinate me with stories about the solar system. Consequently, I ended up being inclined towards science. Since televisions and other forms of popular entertainment were hard to find, story-telling was the norm. The elders in our community told some interesting stories to the young ones in the evenings.

Those stories carried a lot of teaching; this is called traditional knowledge. My favorite is traditional ecological knowledge, which captures how communities interacted with their environment sustainably. I became interested in natural conservation after listening to stories about herbal medicine, hunting game, and how to preserve our environment. As a result, I am now an avid conservation biologist. Currently, the issues affecting access to health care are informing my research.

I have made several turns before I got to my current position. In college, I pursued botany and zoology and environmental management in graduate school. To be able to respond to the issues affecting human health, I studied international development, too. Currently, I am working in a position that enables me to study how population growth affects resource use. My present research is informed by the growing realization that the world is a global village. The issues affecting people in developing countries also affect those countries that are already developed, like America.

We need to understand how people eat, live, the kind of sicknesses, water needs, infrastructure needs, security, natural resources. This is branch of science called demography. We use a lot of statistics to set trends and projections of population growth.

I run about 7 miles every day. I am also a bass guitar player. I hope to play the saxophone one day. To balance, I wake up early to go and run. I try to play my bass guitar at least three days a week. Personal health makes me watch my lifestyle, including eating habits. This evening of science magic with Liz and Gordon will involve strange polymers, sleight of hand, weird math, and peculiar experiments with fluid dynamics. You will be challenged to observe carefully, think deeply, make wild predictions, ask silly questions, propose unrealistic tests, and communicate your conclusions.

No scientist actually follows The Scientific Method and neither do we. After all, this is not a science fair, but rather an evening of magic, fun, and mental gymnastics. That makes me older than most radioactive fallout.

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  7. There was a lot of education and even, eventually, a Nobel Prize. In some ways it was much like Los Alamos is today. I found a copy of The Silent World by Jacques Yves Cousteau, and in spite of its having hardly any pictures and many pages, I devoured the book. I decided I was going to be a marine engineer and design and operate submersibles. Memorable reads in high school were a book about sports car design and another about pre-stressed concrete engineering.

    The late s were a time of major political unrest. Television was full of Vietnam. Martin Luther King, with whom I had once marched, was assassinated. The Chicago Seven were on trial, the ghettos were in flame, and the first computer game I ever saw was a version of Bombardment played on a time-sharing terminal with the gameplay printed out on green bar paper, whatever that was hint—there was no video. I spent a lot of time making wordy pseudo-psychedelic posters about liberal causes and for my own forlorn campaign for President in , when I would finally become of age.

    Pretty shy, I was bullied in the locker room, my friends were a small group of dorks, I tagged along behind a couple of truly engaged kids. I loved my physics class. I sweated out my lines for a drama class. I spent many hours walking alone in the woods. It was a pretty normal adolescence. I flunked out of a medium quality engineering school in one semester. My mistake was other than support from my parents; it was not ever asking anyone for help. I flip-flopped around several departments before settling as an art major. I graduated with a Bachelor of Fine Arts degree in Now as I retire, I look forward to bringing up the Mathamuseum, making art, reading, riding my bikes, and helping make my world a better and more beautiful place.

    I was raised as a military brat, criss-crossing the US and Europe with my parents and sister. This required me to be in constant motion, always adjusting to new people and schools. Although I hate moving, I love experiencing new places. My travels have instilled in me an appreciation for diversity and an insatiable curiosity to explore the world. After earning an Education degree from Kansas State University, I began my teaching career in a small farm town. Later, I moved to Los Alamos, where I taught a variety of grades and subjects from kindergarten through middle school.

    I thought that I would be a school teacher for life, but life had other plans for me.

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    I began working in a science museum, taking science programs around northern New Mexico. When the Cerro Grande Fire ripped through my community I saw homes destroyed and was forced to reevaluate what was important in life. I believe in the power of community, collaboration, and volunteering.

    So, you can often find me volunteering for community organizations, working at the Nature Center, teaching at the Art Center, and advocating for education and children. I am recently retired and am enjoying the outdoors, quilting, and starting a business called the Mathamuseum. I do not know what my future holds, but I am looking for new opportunities. He recently retired after 21 years at Santa Fe Preparatory School as computer department chair, computer science and mathematics teacher.

    He has been working with math circles for students and teachers since early James has also been involved since the late s in teaching computational science and computer modeling in the US and Mexico, including teaching modeling workshops at the Santa Fe Institute and the MIT. I have been a practitioner of physical therepy for over 27 years. So why would a PT be providing a lecture on weight control and mindful eating?

    I guess the simplest answer is that I look at my patients from a holistic point of view, rather than a simple diagnosis. Almost every patient that walks through our doors has some issue with food, either too heavy or too thin or malnourished due to poor eating habits. I felt like I needed to "up my game", in areas of: Mindful or Mindless eating, weight control, and nutrition to better serve my patients.

    Brian is a Stanford Ph. This book is easy to read and chuck full of information regarding human behavior towards food and what we can do to manipulate our environment to reduce our need for will power and begin to eat more mindfully. As a teenager and a young adult, I guess I have always been influenced by my parents. My mother was a talker, super social and loved people and interactions with everyone. She would always say things like, "guess who I bumped into at the grocery store. These two crazy people were responsible for who I am today.

    I got the gift of gab from my mom and the calm passion influence from my pop. These two qualities I feel are a nice combination for my profession. My grades out of high school were not that great. I went to a junior college for two years then transferred to San Francisco State University.

    My grades improved and I worked at a PT office in Marin County part time while picking up night classes: anatomy, kinesiology etc. The Emergency Medical profession is all about rescue and racing to the ER. I wanted to know about the people I was helping, how they were post trauma, etc. I wanted a relationship with them…but the profession did not provide this interaction. After 4 months of anxious waiting, "the letter" arrived from New York University pause for triumphant music ….

    For a short time, I loved living in a big city. I felt as if I was living at the epicenter of the world. The twin towers were still standing when I graduated in I have been a physical therapist for 27 years now, mostly working in an outpatient setting. My patient population is young adult to seniors and I love them all.

    People ask me if I ever get bored working on the same body part, back, neck etc. In addition to working with people, the other thing I think is really great about my job is that I am constantly learning and adjusting my practice to be as effective and efficient as I can be while still trying to make therapy fun and challenging for my patients. I have been a yoga practitioner for over 10 years and I have recently integrated Dry Needling to my practice to help with musculoskeletal healing.

    I am taking a more integrated approach and it seems to be benefitting my patients as well as my own longevity as a physical therapist. These modern science fiction stories all use directed energy weapons to defeat their enemies in order to save the world — or destroy it in the case of War of the Worlds. Our education on directed energy capabilities comes from these and other science fiction novels with their heroes and villains using lasers, radio frequency RF , and electromagnetic pulse EMP weapons systems to win the battle.

    What is directed energy and why do authors like to use it in their science fiction stories about good versus evil? Directed energy weapons offer speed-of-light delivery — times faster than sound. If confusing the enemy is required, he would use an RF signal to scramble the electronics — making the gages go squirrelly. In the lab, we are working on both of these effects. The science of the laser to project enough energy to disarm an incoming missile is incredible. The other science of beam control is even more staggering when you think about it. You have a moving airplane directing a beam of light at a moving target.

    Yes, our scientists and engineers, with the help of our industry partners, were able to accomplish this feat. We love acronyms in the military. I will talk about our directed energy mission at the Air Force Research Laboratory, go in more detail about the science of DE, show videos of existing capabilities, and discuss with you some of the challenges in introducing new technology to the battlefield. Maybe you will have some ideas for us. I look forward to sharing our work in directed energy with you. I started here in as a field engineer working on radio frequency transmitters and field diagnostics.

    I advanced into more technical leadership roles, including becoming the program manager for the Active Denial Technology program for several years. So, how did I end up working as a civilian engineer and program manager for the Air Force in such a fascinating field as Directed Energy Weapons? Well, my father has a PhD in Electrical Engineering and was a junior college instructor and department chairman at a school in the Texas panhandle.

    I also grew up with five brothers. I went to Texas Tech University in electrical engineering like father, like daughter — besides, electronics is cool. Neat thing about electrical engineering which now includes computer engineering too — it is very, very broad. You can be interested in designing chips, designing circuits, building electronics, power transmission, low voltage, high voltage, software, controls, or the things those run IPODs, robots, motors, generators, radio frequency sources, lasers, accelerators.

    I started down the pulsed power path of electrical engineering high voltage, high currents — just what directed energy needs totally by accident. I had a small scholarship from a company who offered to have me work one summer as a technician on some electro-magnetic pulsers. AFRL always has its feelers out for good U. I have learned more in the laboratory than in school by far. As a young kid, I spent a lot of time outside Like a lot of kids in my generation, I ran around the neighborhood freely, ducking in and out of nearby woodlots.

    My friends and I knew where we were allowed where we weren't allowed and where we could only go if someone triple dog dared us. The freedom to explore the landscape was matched by the freedom to explore our imaginations. It gave us independence from adults and confidence in our abilities; granted, they were still pretty undeveloped. Later in life, my love of learning about the outdoors led me to major in environmental science at the University of Iowa. I didn't seek out the major, but just picked it from a list of available options. I hadn't even know that was an option. I never thought you could major in something so diverse and exciting.

    To me, majors were all connected to professions. You could major in engineering and be an engineer, accounting and be an accountant. I never had an answer to the question, "what do you want to be when you grow up? I had a few friends who were English majors. I was half jealous of what they were learning and half afraid we were both entering the workforce with equally ambiguous career prospects.

    Like they did for most of my English-major friends, the jobs found their a way to me, rather than the other way around. My first job out of college was doing Quality Assurance for a giant corporation that processed corn for processed food. It was a solid job full of upward mobility and decent pay, but it just wasn't for me. So my partner and I decided to head west. I didn't have a plan or a destination or even the faintest idea of what I wanted, other than I knew I needed to work outside.

    I moved to New Mexico for an internship, knowing I could figure it out the same way I learned about the woodlots of my youth, through exploration and inquiry. In the first few years, I gained an understanding of the ecology and the people of the Southwest.

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    I went back to school at Northern Arizona University to increase my science knowledge and supplement a lot of things I didn't learn during my undergraduate work. I learned a lot from school the second time around, and now my master's degree feels well with the effort. Since I've graduated, I've learned a lot more. I'm increasingly involved in collaborative planning, where we try to integrate our best understanding of the ecology and culture of our forests into responsible land management decisions. This work is as much about knowing people as it is about understanding the landscape.

    I love my job as an ecologist and love learning every day about a different aspect of the Southwest. It is a late Fall afternoon and two hikers are enjoying a brisk walk in the mountains. They are miles from the nearest the town and miles from the nearest person. They go around a curve in the trail when suddenly they stumble across human remains. Who is this person? How did they get here? How did they die? These are a few of the questions that forensic investigators are faced with, and the body has numerous clues that help answer these questions. By using forensic tools and mathematical equations, we can determine the sex, age and race of an individual.

    We can also identify trauma and natural diseases by examining the condition of the bones. With a group of Forensic Anthropologists and Scene Investigators from the Office of the Medical Investigator, we will learn about skeletal remains and examine several cases. This will be an evening of hands on learning and creative fun. Your generation may very well have to grapple with conflict among those three laws that Isaac thought up back in Robots have become a part of our everyday lives.

    You probably have one in your pocket right now. Keep it there! No texting! We also have laptops for programming the modules. All of this can come together to create a programmable robot that can perform tasks. Cristian Madrid is a senior at McCurdy Charter School and has been involved with Moving Arts of Espanola as a student, intern, and ultimately a teacher. Liam Silverman lives in Embudo and is a senior at Taos Academy. He plans on attending film school at UNM and is a photographer.

    Emmett Moulton lives in Embudo and is a senior at Taos Academy. He along with four other students just won best in nation entries! FIRST has grown over the past twenty plus years into an graduated series of competitions that challenge students of all ages from elementary through high school. In the Team reached the finals in the Lubbock competition and in won the Control Innovation award at the Lubbock regional.

    This year we are competing in a game called Steamworks at Flagstaff and Denver. The first 15 seconds of the match are autonomous and the remainder are operator controlled. Alliances during the qualification matches are randomly seeded after which there is an alliance selection for the elimination round. Past challenges have involved shooting basketballs, balancing on a teeter-totter, shooting Frisbees, lifting the robot, shooting a yoga exercise ball, stacking totes, driving under and over obstacles, opening a drawbridge, crossing a cheval de frise, and cooperating with other robots to score points.

    All of that is done by a robot that weighs less than lbs. Competition is an organizing principle for the Team, but more importantly, Project Y gives students an opportunity to explore STEM education through practical application: designing, building, prototyping, and innovating. The many positive reactions from kids and their parents demonstrate that the Team is having success in our outreach goals in the community to increase awareness and interest in STEM education. Our goal is to promote and inspire students through science and technology education.

    In this way, we help to grow the next generation of science and technology leaders. This is my 10th year at Taos High and my 19th year teaching. I am not a scientist nor am I an engineer. As a child in Massachusetts and New Hampshire, I was always taking things apart and putting them back together again. The son of an electrical contractor, I learned to read electrical blueprint symbols before I could read words. I would go to work with my dad and pour over the plans with him calling out where the outlets and switches and lights needed to be.

    Then I found Legos. What a collection I gathered. When I was 10 we moved from the suburbs of Boston to the mountains of New Hampshire. In the town we lived in there was a dump It was a very small village, and the dump had been in the same little hollow for well over a hundred years.

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    If you worked your way back through the mess and dug around in the undergrowth, you could find original Edison light bulbs; further forward would be an old radio from the depression era or old toasters, motors, you name it. I spent my days digging around and decided that with all of that junk I could build myself a robot. I must have spent an entire summer gathering pieces of things and parts of machinery. I never did get a robot out of it, but in my attempt, I became fascinated with design and engineering.


    At the age of twelve I got my first electric saber saw and drill. I started building simple shelves and boxes. By the age of eighteen, I had designed my own oak pedestal bed in our basement workshop. A few more days of work and I figured out how to split it in two for the hike up the stairs. I have been self-employed and have provided employment for numerous woodworkers and cabinetmakers for over thirty-seven years.

    My career has been diverse. I have spent many years designing and building one of a kind pieces of furniture such as dining room sets, beds, desks, bookcases, and hutches, as well as designing and crafting kitchen and bath cabinetry. I love my job. It is a beautiful blend of engineering and art, form and function that requires the knowledge of both science and engineering. I have three sons and a daughter ranging in age from thirty-four to fourteen. Two hours later, they were the only team to get a lego robot built and down the track.

    They were competing against teams from as far away as Beijing, China, and Bogota, Colombia. In , they returned to the competition and won 1st place again! I was born in Detroit, MI and moved around to several locations while growing up. I attended high school in Jamestown, NY, graduating in In high school I wanted to be either a mechanical engineer or a auto mechanic. I decided on mechanical engineering and went to Rochester Institute of Technology to study—primarily because they had a cooperative education program as part of the engineering curriculum.

    During college I worked at a nuclear power plant as a civil engineer, a pump manufacturer as a manufacturing engineer, and in Sweden for an aluminum wire and rod manufacturing company on the aluminum casting line. Following graduating with a bachelor of engineering, I joined the Navy because I wasn't sure that I wanted to sit behind a desk all day.

    I was an officer on-board a nuclear submarine for five years, where I sailed across the Pacific, under ice, and across the equator. Following my naval career, I joined a consulting company providing engineering, operations, and training support largely to Department of Energy facilities at Hanford, Los Alamos, and Nevada. Over the past 16 years I have worked to support a wide variety of facilities and operations at the Laboratory. I am currently the Division Leader for the Utilities and Institutional Facilities, where I am responsible for the Laboratory's utilities, roads, data centers, administrative, and support facilities.

    In my career I have led and overseen the development, construction, and operation of a wide range of projects and activities, including a gas turbine and a wastewater reclamation facility. After watching the program for a couple years, I saw the value and inspiration for students in terms of practical engineering and challenges that were not otherwise readily available. I believe that there is a powerful synergy between formal education and relevant experience, and that coupling them can enhance the quality of both.

    Project Y is a unique opportunity for students to challenge themselves on a real world project and learn new skills, while applying them to practical experiences. One element of making a decision is the information or data that we use to make these decision. Data can come from many different sources and can take unexpected forms. For example, if you decided to wear a short sleeve t-shirt but now it is 10F outside, you will face the consequences of your decision: you will be cold!!!

    During this lesson, we will analyze our data i. The decision we make, based on our data, will be used to guide an important policy. We will characterize the probability of failure of this type of bomb and use it to help the decision maker answer the question: can I trust that this bomb is going to go off when I need it to? My road to getting where I am now has been full of twists and turns.

    I grew up in the border town of El Paso, Texas. Another semester led to a realization that this was not my thing either. After some serious thinking about what I liked to do, I realized that I enjoyed putting things together by following instructions and once in a while improvising. Engineering, more specifically civil engineering CE , was the right fit! This was fun, but lasted only 2 years, as the passing of my father brought me back to El Paso to help out my mom.

    I was fortunate that my advisor had a friend that was looking for a summer student to work in this place called Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque. I joined Sandia in working as a summer student, and in I joined the Model Validation and Uncertainty Quantification Department, which focused on issues around uncertainty and its effect on decision-making. This has become one of my biggest passions in my work. Then another big break happened in Following almost 8 years of being out of school, I was selected to the Doctoral Studies Program at Sandia which basically paid me to go get a PhD.

    My job requires me to understand aeronautics, mechanics, thermal physics, and electromagnetics in order to make decisions about what work needs to be done. The new challenges that my new job offers has pushed me out of my comfort zone both technically and personally. But by taking on them, I have grown and matured well passed my own expectations.

    Normally visible only during a total solar eclipse, the solar corona is an extensive atmosphere surrounding the sun, extending millions of miles into interplanetary space. The corona is a plasma, a very hot, thin gas in which negatively-charged electrons have been removed from their atoms, leaving positively charged ions. This plasma has a temperature in the millions of degrees, much hotter than the visible surface, or photosphere, of the sun, which has a temperature of degrees Kelvin. The word corona means crown in Latin, also in Spanish, and the solar corona was given this name because it often appears crown-like to the naked eye during a total solar eclipse.

    It shines partly by light from the photosphere scattered off dust and electrons in the plasma, and partly from light emitted by highly ionized atoms within the plasma. How is it that the solar corona is thousands of times hotter than the surface of the sun? What heats the corona? This is a question that continues to mystify solar physicists and astronomers. The two best theories are that the heating is by waves similar to sound waves originating from the solar surface, or that the heating is caused by the energization of electrical currents during magnetic reconnection events.

    We see reconnection events, in which the magnetic field suddenly changes configuration, in solar flares and prominences. Neither of these theories is completely satisfactory, and we can only answer the question through better observations of the corona and its connection to the solar surface.

    Only a total solar eclipse gives us the opportunity to observe the inner corona, right down to the solar surface. On satellites, it is possible to make continuous records, over many hours, days, or months, of the outer corona. In these records, scientists have observed plumes rising up into the corona, presumably from the photosphere. The origin of these plumes may help to resolve the question of how the corona is heated.

    But records of the inner corona, available during total solar eclipses lasting only minutes, have not been sufficient to determine their origins. The total eclipse that will occur on August 21st of this year, with a continental track stretching from Oregon to South Carolina, presents a unique opportunity. Observers stationed at points along the track, with identical equipment, will collectively produce a minute record of changes in the inner corona. We hope that this experiment, known as the Continental American Telescopic Eclipse or CATE will contribute to a solution of the coronal heating problem.

    I was born on the high plains of Eastern New Mexico, flat country under a star-studded dome. I was fascinated by what I saw up there. I read books that gave me facts, but I was driven to know what was behind those facts: how can we figure out what those points of light are made of, how far away are they, and how do they shine? Clyde Tombaugh, the discoverer of Pluto, visited my high school. It was exciting to meet the only person living at that time who had discovered a planet!

    More importantly, here was a man, who started out a country boy like me, who had become a distinguished astronomer, able to make his own discoveries. Nowadays planets are being discovered around other stars almost every day, and Pluto itself has been demoted — though not for me! I worked hard in school, and got a scholarship that sent me to Yale University. There I had my first chance to look through a real telescope.

    In a darkening sky I pointed it at Saturn, and was transfixed. There it was, exposed to my own eyes, not a picture, but the real thing, so pretty, jewel-like, in the background of a velvety sky. I was enrolled in a course on observational astronomy, and could play with the coolest toys in the world. Not just the telescope, but the measuring engines, the darkrooms we used photographic plates back then! Was it possible that science could be so much fun?

    The things that I had read about as a child were coming within my reach. On the 7th of March, , our astronomy class took a field trip to Nantucket Island, where there was to be a total solar eclipse. Although the skies were cloudy during the ferry ride, they cleared as we set up the instruments at the Maria Mitchell Observatory. It was an amazing, unforgettable experience.

    The phenomenon was spectacular, much more real than any picture I had seen. We made careful observations of the times of entry into and exit from totality, experienced seeing the stars in the daytime, and recorded observations of shadow bands, animal behaviors, and so on. I also took photographs with my own camera, but they were disappointing. Stephen Hawking had an office opposite the group office for graduate students, and I could hear the music his specially fitted typewriter made as he derived his theories and wrote his books.

    Those were heady times for this country boy. Through the years, working at observatories in the Netherlands, Arizona, and Virginia, at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, and the University of Oslo in Norway, my interests have ranged far and wide. I have studied big bang cosmology, the formation and evolution of galaxies, the structure of the sun and stars, gamma-ray bursts, tsunamis, and volcanoes.

    Right now I am mostly occupied with asteroid impacts and how to prevent them. This summer I will participate in another eclipse expedition as part of the great Continental American Telescopic Eclipse on August 21, Spy satellites, clandestine nuclear tests, violent cosmic explosions: the discovery of gamma-ray bursts has all of the elements of one of the greatest stories in science! Instead, these satellites detected a strange burst of energetic gamma-rays coming from outer space, and ended up launching an entirely new and exciting field of astrophysics. When scientists took a closer look at these strange gamma-ray bursts, it was clear they were not coming from nuclear bombs.

    The bursts were not coming from some natural process of the sun or Earth either. Over the course of a few years, the Vela satellites saw about 16 of these gamma-ray bursts, each one lasting about ten seconds and each one coming from a different direction in outer space. Once the data was made public, astrophysicists got very excited, coming up with models of these great bursts. Nobody really had much of a clue as to what these things were; models ranged from collisions of comets in the outer solar system, high speed iron particles breaking up as they flew toward earth, star quakes, stellar flare-ups, and the list goes on, with literally hundreds of models trying to explain these things!

    Over the following few decades, and with much painstaking effort by many groups around the world, a few major pieces of the puzzle began to fall into place. For a few seconds there would be a bunch of gamma-rays, and then none for about a second, and then another burst for a few seconds, all from the same source, and lasting overall for about 10 to seconds. They had to be coming from something about the size of a star. The fact that they appeared all over the sky in all directions hinted that they are probably coming from sources in galaxies way out in the universe.

    Other telescopes around the world pointed in this direction and saw an afterglow at lower energies as well, at visible and radio wavelengths. They emit so much energy in their first seconds, in fact, that it would take our sun billion years about 25 times the age of the universe to emit as much. Gamma ray bursts are without a doubt the most energetic explosions in universe. Frank Wilson and the Cavaliers' " Last Kiss. While rock 'n' roll had 'disappeared' from the US charts in the early '60s, it never died out in Europe and Britain in particular was a hotbed of rock-and-roll activity during this time.

    In late , the Beatles embarked on their first US tour. The stage was set for the spectacular revival of rock music. In the UK, the Beatles played raucous rock 'n' roll — as well as doo wop, girl-group songs, show tunes — and wore leather jackets. Their manager Brian Epstein encouraged the group to wear suits. Beatlemania abruptly exploded after the group's appearance on the Ed Sullivan Show in Late in , the Beatles released the album Rubber Soul which marked the beginning of their transition to a sophisticated power pop group with elaborate studio arrangements and production, and a year after that, they gave up touring entirely to focus only on albums.

    A host of imitators followed the Beatles in the so-called British Invasion, including groups like the Rolling Stones and the Kinks who would become legends in their own right. As the counterculture movement developed, artists began making new kinds of music influenced by the use of psychedelic drugs. Guitarist Jimi Hendrix emerged onto the scene in with a radically new approach to electric guitar that replaced Chuck Berry, previously seen as the gold standard of rock guitar. A major development in popular music during the mids was the movement away from singles and towards albums.

    Previously, popular music was based around the 45 single or even earlier, the 78 single and albums such as they existed were little more than a hit single or two backed with filler tracks, instrumentals, and covers. The development of the AOR album oriented rock format was complicated and involved several concurrent events such as Phil Spector's Wall of Sound, the introduction by Bob Dylan of "serious" lyrics to rock music, and the Beatles' new studio-based approach.

    In any case, after the vinyl LP had definitively taken over as the primary format for all popular music styles. Blues also continued to develop strongly during the '60s, but after , it increasingly shifted to the young white rock audience and away from its traditional black audience, which moved on to other styles such as soul and funk. Jazz music during the first half of the '60s was largely a continuation of '50s styles, retaining its core audience of young, urban, college-educated whites.

    By , the death of several important jazz figures such as John Coltrane and Nat King Cole precipitated a decline in the genre. The takeover of rock in the late '60s largely spelled the end of jazz as a mainstream form of music, after it had dominated much of the first half of the 20th century. Female country artists were also becoming more mainstream in a genre dominated by men in prior decades , with such acts as Patsy Cline , Loretta Lynn , and Tammy Wynette. Some of Hollywood's most notable blockbuster films of the s include:. The counterculture movement had a significant effect on cinema.

    Movies began to break social taboos such as sex and violence causing both controversy and fascination. They turned increasingly dramatic, unbalanced, and hectic as the cultural revolution was starting. This was the beginning of the New Hollywood era that dominated the next decade in theatres and revolutionized the film industry. Films of this time also focused on the changes happening in the world. Dennis Hopper 's Easy Rider focused on the drug culture of the time.

    Movies also became more sexually explicit, such as Roger Vadim 's Barbarella as the counterculture progressed. In Japan, a film version of the story of the forty-seven ronin entitled Chushingura: Hana no Maki, Yuki no Maki directed by Hiroshi Inagaki was released in , the legendary story was also remade as a television series in Japan.

    Academy Award-winning Japanese director Akira Kurosawa produced Yojimbo , and Sanjuro , which both starred Toshiro Mifune as a mysterious Samurai swordsman for hire. Like his previous films both had a profound influence around the world. The Spaghetti Western genre was a direct outgrowth of the Kurosawa films. The s were also about experimentation. With the explosion of light-weight and affordable cameras, the underground avant-garde film movement thrived.

    The Flintstones was a favoured show, receiving 40 million views an episode with an average of 3 views a day. Some programming such as The Smothers Brothers Comedy Hour became controversial by challenging the foundations of America's corporate and governmental controls; making fun of world leaders, and questioning U.

    Walt Disney , the founder of the Walt Disney Co. The mop-top haircut , which became popular due to the Beatles but was considered at the time a rebellious hairstyle, was particularly fashionable among young men during the decade. The bikini became a fashionable item in the Western world during the decade. There were six Olympic Games held during the decade. These were:. The first wave of Major League Baseball expansion in included the formation of the Los Angeles Angels , the move to Minnesota to become the Minnesota Twins by the former Washington Senators and the formation of a new franchise called the Washington Senators.

    Major League Baseball sanctioned both the Houston Colt. In , the American League expanded when the Kansas City Royals and Seattle Pilots , were admitted to the league prompting the expansion of the post-season in the form of the League Championship Series for the first time since the creation of the World Series. The Pilots stayed just one season in Seattle before moving and becoming the Milwaukee Brewers in The NBA tournaments during the s were dominated by the Boston Celtics , who won eight straight titles from to and added two more consecutive championships in and , aided by such players as Bob Cousy , Bill Russell and John Havlicek.

    Coached by John Wooden , they were helped by Lew Alcindor and by Bill Walton to win championships and dominate the American college basketball landscape during the decade. Alternative sports, using the flying disc, began in the mid-sixties. As numbers of young people became alienated from social norms, they resisted and looked for alternatives. They would form what would become known as the counterculture. The forms of escape and resistance would manifest in many ways including social activism, alternative lifestyles, experimental living through foods, dress, music and alternative recreational activities, including that of throwing a Frisbee.

    In motorsports , the Can-Am and Trans-Am series were both established in Dwight Eisenhower. John F. Lyndon B. Richard Nixon. Nikita Khrushchev. Leonid Brezhnev. Harold Macmillan. Alec Douglas-Home. Harold Wilson. Charles de Gaulle. Georges Pompidou. Chiang Kai-shek. Mao Zedong. Konrad Adenauer. Willy Brandt. Ludwig Erhard. Kurt Georg Kiesinger. Walter Ulbricht. Amintore Fanfani. Aldo Moro.

    David Ben-Gurion. Fidel Castro. Jan de Quay. Piet de Jong. John Diefenbaker. Levi Eshkol. Francisco Franco. Eduardo Frei Montalva. Indira Gandhi. John Gorton. Harold Holt. Keith Holyoake. Hayato Ikeda. Nobusuke Kishi. John McEwen.

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    Robert Menzies. Walter Nash. Gamal Abdel Nasser. Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. Lester B. Josip Broz Tito. Pierre Trudeau. Muammar Gaddafi. King Hussein. Ferdinand Marcos. Diosdado Macapagal. Joan Baez and Bob Dylan , 28 August The following articles contain brief timelines which list the most prominent events of the decade:. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

    For decades comprising years 60—69 of other centuries, see List of decades. Births Deaths By country By topic. Establishments Disestablishments. The examples and perspective in this article deal primarily with the United States and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject. You may improve this article , discuss the issue on the talk page , or create a new article , as appropriate. July Learn how and when to remove this template message. See also: Counterculture of the s and Timeline of s counterculture.

    Main article: Civil rights movement. Main article: Second-wave feminism. The youth of today must go there to find themselves. The Wild Bunch. Main article: s in television. Main article: s in fashion. Sean Connery , Paul Newman , Audrey Hepburn , Clint Eastwood , Brigitte Bardot , Alfred Hitchcock. Ingmar Bergman. Federico Fellini. The Beatles , Beach Boys , Jimi Hendrix , Isaac Asimov. Agatha Christie. Arthur C. The New York Times. Retrieved 26 August Retrieved 1 January Keynesianism made its biggest breakthrough under John Kennedy, who, as Arthur Schlesinger reports in A Thousand Days, "was unquestionably the first Keynesian President.

    New York Times. Retrieved 31 August Swarthmore College Peace Collection. Archived from the original on 3 August Retrieved 8 February The Washington Post. Retrieved 20 April Calcutta: A Cultural History. Interlink Books. History — s". Retrieved 24 June Archived from the original on 6 July Elvis Presley: A life in music.

    The complete recording sessions , p. Martin's Press. Retrieved 25 November Box Office Mojo. Waltham, Mass. Retrieved 19 October History of the Flying Disc.